Empathy, the capacity to take another person’s perspective and appreciate their emotion, is thought to increase over the course of adolescence with advances in cognition and emotion. Some evidence suggests that boys and girls diverge in their tendency to empathize, with girls showing more empathy as they progress through adolescence. To date, however, research on gender differences and patterns of empathy development during adolescence have been based on group comparisons and short multi-year samples, with mixed findings. Changes in the brain that accompany puberty may underlie advances in empathy. Specifically, the areas of the brain responsible for perspective-taking mature during adolescence. Neurological changes also underlie shifts in adolescents’ emotional processing, leading them to experience emotions more intensely. Despite these findings linking pubertal timing with cognitive and affective change, no research has looked at the relation of pubertal development to empathy.